Key Publications for FairShares

  • Ridley-Duff, R. (2018) “The internationalisation of FairShares: where agency meets structure in US and UK company law”, in Boeger, N. and Villiers, C. (eds), Shaping the Corporate Landscape, Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  • Ridley-Duff, R. and Wren, D. (2017) FairShares Institute for Cooperative Social Entrepreneurship (HEIF Project Report), published at
  • Ridley-Duff, R., Schmıdtchen, R., Arnold-Schaarschmidt, M., Vukovıć, S., Klercq, J., Southcombe, C. Trzecınskı, S. Oparaocha, K. Bedőné Károly, J. (2017) Methodology for Creating a FairShares Lab, IO1 for Erasmus+ Project (European FairShares Labs for Social and Blue Innovation, project number 2016-1-DE02-KA204-003397) (October Draft).
  • Ridley-Duff, R. J. and Bull, M. (2016). Understanding Social Enterprise: Theory and Practice (2nd Edition), London: Sage Publications, 440p., ISBN 978-1446295533.
  • Ridley-Duff, R. J. (2015) “The FairShares Model: an ethical approach to social enterprise development?”, Econviews – Review of Contemporary Economic, Entrepreneurship and Business Issues, 28(1): 43–66, ISSN 1847-2206.
  • Ridley-Duff, R. J. (2015). The Case for FairShares: a new model for social enterprise development and the strengthening of the social and solidarity economy, Charleston: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 193p., ISBN 978-1512377668.
  • Ridley-Duff, R. (2014). The Dragons’ Apprentice: a social enterprise novel, Charleston: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 101p., ISBN 978-1503088573.
  • Ridley-Duff, R. J. and Ponton, A. (2013) “Workforce participation: developing a theoretical framework for longitudinal research”, Journal of Co-operative Studies, Vol. 46(3): 3-25.
  • Ridley-Duff, R. J. (2012) “New frontiers in democratic self-management”, in McDonnell, D. and Macknight, E. (eds), The Co‑operative Model in Practice, Glasgow: Co-operative Education Trust, pp. 99-117.
  • Ridley-Duff, R. J. (2007) “Communitarian perspectives on social enterprise”, Corporate Governance: An International Review, 15(2): 382-392.

Underpinning Research

  • Atherton, J., Birchall, J., Mayo, E. and Simon, G. (2012) Practical Tools for Defining Co-operative and Mutual Enterprises, Manchester: Co-operatives UK,  accessed 1st October 2012.
  • Birchall, J. (2012) “A member-owned business approach to the classification of co-operatives and mutuals”, in McDonnell, D. and Macknight, E. (eds) (2012), The Co-operative Model in Practice, Glasgow: Co-operative Education Trust, pp. 67-82.
  • Brown, J. (2006) “Equity finance for social enterprises”, Social Enterprise Journal, 2(1): 73-81.
  • Ellerman, D. (1984) “Entrepreneurship in the Mondragon Co-operatives”, Review of Social Economy, 42(3): 272-294.
  • Ellerman, D. (1990) The Democratic Worker-Owned Firm: A New Model for East and West, Boston: Unwin Hyman.
  • Ellerman, D. (2005) Helping People Help Themselves: From the World Bank to an Alternative Philosophy of Development Assistance, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Erdal, D. (2000) The Psychology of Sharing: An Evolutionary Approach, unpublished PhD Thesis, University of St Andrews.
  • Erdal, D. (2009) Local Heroes: How Loch Fyne Oysters Embraced Employee Ownership and Business Success, London: Penguin.
  • Erdal, D. (2011) Beyond the Corporation: Humanity Working: London: The Bodley Head.
  • McDonnell, D., MacKnight, E. and Donnelly, H. (2012) Democratic Enterprise: Ethical Business for the 21st Century, Available at SSRN: or
  • Major, G. (1996) “Solving the under-investment and degeneration problems of worker co-ops”, Annals of Public and Co‑operative Economics, 67: 545-601.
  • Major, G. (1998) “The Need for NOVARS (Non-Voting Value Added Sharing Renewable Shares)”, Journal of Co‑operative Studies, 31(2): 57-72.
  • Major, G., Boby, G. (2000) Equity Devaluation, The Rarity of Democratic Firms, and “Profit Shares”,
  • Ridley-Duff, R. J. and Bull, M. (2011) Understanding Social Enterprise: Theory and Practice, London: Sage Publications.
  • Ridley-Duff, R. J. (2012b) Creative Commons, discussion paper for the School for Democratic Socialism and Co-operative Party.
  • Ridley-Duff, R. J. (2010) “Communitarian governance in social enterprises: case evidence from the Mondragon Co-operative Corporation and School Trends Ltd”, Social Enterprise Journal, 6(2): 125-145.
  • Ridley-Duff, R. and Bull, M. (2014a) ‘Entrepreneurship: value-added ventures’, in O. Laasch and R. Conway (eds), Principles of Responsible Management. New York: Cengage Learning, pp. 186–219.
  • Turnbull, S. (1994), “Stakeholder democracy: redesigning the governance of firms and bureaucracies”, Journal of Socio-Economics, 23(3): 321-360.
  • Turnbull, S. (1995) “Innovations in corporate governance: The Mondragon Experience”, Corporate Governance: An International Review, 3(3): 167-180.
  • Turnbull, S. (2002) A New Way to Govern: Organisations and Society after Enron, London: New Economics Foundation.
  • Vanek, J. (1970) The General Theory of Labor-Managed Market Economies, Ithaca: Cornell University.

Conference / Academic Papers on FairShares